python从入门到精通(day2)

1、字典复制:

dict = {‘name’:’wang’, ‘sex’:’m’, ‘age’:34, ‘job’:’it’}
info = dict ##别名 (二个字典指向内存的同一地址空间)
info1 = dict.copy() #shadow copy 浅复制(嵌套字典第一层独立,第二层以下相关联)
import copy
copy.copy() #shadow copy 浅复制
copy.deepcopy() #deep copy 深复制(完全独立)

注:浅复制下的关联只是针对字典初始状态包含的嵌套对象,后新加的不会

例:

>>> dict
{‘info’: [‘a’, ‘b’, 1, 2], ‘job’: ‘it’, ‘sex’: ‘m’, ‘age’: 40, ‘name’: ‘wang’}
>>> dict_alias = dict
>>> dict_copy = copy.copy(dict)
>>> dict_deep = copy.deepcopy(dict)

#添加、改变、删除第一层的对象键值,浅复制和深复制都不受影响

>>> dict[‘age’] = 32
>>> del dict[‘sex’]
>>> dict
{‘info’: [‘a’, ‘b’, 1, 2], ‘job’: ‘it’, ‘age’: 32, ‘name’: ‘wang’}
>>> dict_alias
{‘info’: [‘a’, ‘b’, 1, 2], ‘job’: ‘it’, ‘age’: 32, ‘name’: ‘wang’}
>>> dict_copy
{‘info’: [‘a’, ‘b’, 1, 2], ‘job’: ‘it’, ‘age’: 40, ‘name’: ‘wang’, ‘sex’: ‘m’}
>>> dict_deep
{‘info’: [‘a’, ‘b’, 1, 2], ‘job’: ‘it’, ‘age’: 40, ‘name’: ‘wang’, ‘sex’: ‘m’}

#改变、删除原有的第二层的对象键值,浅复制受影响,而深复制都不受影响

>>> dict[‘info’][2] = 100
>>> dict
{‘info’: [‘a’, ‘b’, 100, 2], ‘job’: ‘it’, ‘age’: 32, ‘name’: ‘wang’}
>>> dict_alias
{‘info’: [‘a’, ‘b’, 100, 2], ‘job’: ‘it’, ‘age’: 32, ‘name’: ‘wang’}
>>> dict_copy
{‘info’: [‘a’, ‘b’, 100, 2], ‘job’: ‘it’, ‘age’: 40, ‘name’: ‘wang’, ‘sex’: ‘m’}
>>> dict_deep
{‘info’: [‘a’, ‘b’, 1, 2], ‘job’: ‘it’, ‘age’: 40, ‘name’: ‘wang’, ‘sex’: ‘m’}

#添加第二层的对象,浅复制和深复制都不受影响

>>> dict[‘new’] = {‘a’:1, ‘b’:2, ‘c’:5}
>>> dict
{‘info’: [‘a’, ‘b’, 100, 2], ‘name’: ‘wang’, ‘age’: 32, ‘job’: ‘it’, ‘new’: {‘a’: 1, ‘c’: 5, ‘b’: 2}}
>>> dict_alias
{‘info’: [‘a’, ‘b’, 100, 2], ‘name’: ‘wang’, ‘age’: 32, ‘job’: ‘it’, ‘new’: {‘a’: 1, ‘c’: 5, ‘b’: 2}}
>>> dict_copy
{‘info’: [‘a’, ‘b’, 100, 2], ‘job’: ‘it’, ‘age’: 40, ‘name’: ‘wang’, ‘sex’: ‘m’}
>>> dict_deep
{‘info’: [‘a’, ‘b’, 1, 2], ‘job’: ‘it’, ‘age’: 40, ‘name’: ‘wang’, ‘sex’: ‘m’}

2、内置函数说明:

__name__:主文件时返回main,否则返回文件名,可用来判断是否说主文件还是导入模块;

__file__:文件的绝对路径;

__doc__:文件开头的注释说明

例:

”’
created by 2015-12-18
@author: kevin
”’
if __name__ == ‘__main__’:
print(‘this is main file’)
print(__file__)
print(__doc__)

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